Paul’s Use of the Septuagint

In research for a previous article, I surveyed Paul’s quotations of the Hebrew Bible, to see how often he interacted with the Septuagint (LXX), the existing collection of Greek translations of the Hebrew scriptures. (Not vague references to the contents of this or that part of the Hebrew Bible, but occasions where Paul intends to convey the actual wording of a specific text.) While Paul, of course, wrote his letters in Greek, I was surprised just how often he used the Septuagint. I suppose I had been under the impression he translated directly from a Hebrew text at least some of the time. Instead, the results were staggering: except for a few ambiguous or dubious cases, Paul uses the Septuagint exclusively. I’ve compiled my findings into a few graphics, and laid out the comparisons below.

The frequency by which Paul quotes from the Septuagint corresponds to Zipf’s Law.

Tedium

By ‘verbatim’ I mean Paul’s quotation is word-for-word identical to the Septuagint. By ‘near-verbatim’, Paul’s quotation contains strings of identical or near-identical wording from the LXX, even though Paul may have modified or rearranged parts. By ‘paraphrase’ I mean Paul appears to be working from the LXX, but keeps only some of the text he is borrowing from.

Text that is striked out is what does not match identically between Paul’s quotation and the text in the Septuagint. Striked out text may have a match between the LXX and Paul, but it may not be identical.

Romans

ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (1.17)

ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεώς μου ζήσεται (Hab 2.4)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes μου.

ὃς ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ (2.6)

ἀποδώσεις ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ (Psa 62.12 / LXX 61.13)

Near-verbatim. Paul adds ὃς, and modifies the verb.

τὸ γὰρ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ δι’ ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν (2.24)

δι’ ὑμᾶς διὰ παντὸς τὸ ὄνομά μου βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν (Isa 52.5)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes a couple words, adds a couple words, and rearranges two parts of the sentence. Despite these changes, more than half of the quotation is identical.

ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου καὶ νικήσεις ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε (3.4)

ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου καὶ νικήσς ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε (Psa 51.4)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes νικήσῃς to νικήσεις.

οὐκ ἔστιν δίκαιος οὐδὲ (3.10)

οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα (Psa 14.1 / LXX 13.1)

εἷς οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ συνίων οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν (3.11)

εἰ ἔστιν συνίων ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν (Psa 14.2 / LXX 13.2)

πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν (3.12-18)

πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν (Psa 14.3 / LXX 13.3)

Near-verbatim. Paul’s quotation of LXX Psa 13 begins very loosely, like a paraphrase. However, after the first two sentences, partially lifted from 13.1 and 13.2, the following paragraph is identical to 13.3, with the exception that Paul changes ποιῶν to ὁ ποιῶν.

ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην (4.3)

καὶ ἐπίστευσεν Ἀβρὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην (Gen 15.6)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes the opening syntax slightly, and changes Ἀβρὰμ to the more recognizable Ἀβραὰμ.

μακάριοι ὧν ἀφέθησαν αἱ ἀνομίαι καὶ ὧν ἐπεκαλύφθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι μακάριος ἀνὴρ οὗ οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν (4.7-8)

μακάριοι ὧν ἀφέθησαν αἱ ἀνομίαι καὶ ὧν ἐπεκαλύφθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι μακάριος ἀνήρ οὗ οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν (Psa 32.1-2 / LXX 31.1-2)

Verbatim.

ὅτι πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε (4.17)

ὅτι πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε (Gen 17.5)

Verbatim.

οὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου (4.18)

οὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου (Gen 15.5)

Verbatim.

ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ (4.23)

ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ (Gen 15.6)

Verbatim.

οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις (7.7)

οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις (Exo 20.17)

Verbatim.

ὅτι ἕνεκεν σοῦ θανατούμεθα ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐλογίσθημεν ὡς πρόβατα σφαγῆς (8.36)

ὅτι ἕνεκα σοῦ θανατούμεθα ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐλογίσθημεν ὡς πρόβατα σφαγῆς (Psa 44.22 / LXX 43.23)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes ἕνεκα to ἕνεκεν.

ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα (9.7)

ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα (Gen 21.12)

Verbatim.

κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον ἐλεύσομαι καὶ ἔσται τῇ Σάρρᾳ υἱός (9.9)

κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον εἰς ὥρας καὶ ἕξει υἱὸν (Gen 18.10)

καὶ ἔσται τῇ Σάρρᾳ υἱός (Gen 18.14)

Near-verbatim. Paul combines two related verses.

ὁ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι (9.12)

ὁ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι (Gen 25.23)

Verbatim.

τὸν Ἰακὼβ ἠγάπησα τὸν δὲ Ἠσαῦ ἐμίσησα (9.13)

ἠγάπησα τὸν Ἰακὼβ τὸν δὲ Ἠσαῦ ἐμίσησα (Mal 1.2-3)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses τὸν Ἰακὼβ and ἠγάπησα.

ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ καὶ οἰκτιρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτίρω (9.15)

ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ καὶ οἰκτιρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτίρω (Exo 33.19)

Verbatim.

ὅτι εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐξήγειρά σε ὅπως ἐνδείξωμαι ἐν σοὶ τὴν δύναμίν μου καὶ ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ (9.17)

καὶ ἕνεκεν τούτου διετηρήθης ἵνα ἐνδείξωμαι ἐν σοὶ τὴν ἰσχύν μου καὶ ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ (Exo 9.16)

Near-verbatim. Paul’s version is identical to about half of the text found in LXX Exo 9.16. This may indicate Paul was attempting to quote from memory, or had an alternate Greek version from the one commonly known, but makes it doubtful Paul was translating directly from a Hebrew version.

μὴ ἐρεῖ τὸ πλάσμα τῷ πλάσαντι τί με ἐποίησας οὕτως (9.20)

μὴ ἐρεῖ τὸ πλάσμα τῷ πλάσαντι οὐ σύ με ἔπλασας ἢ τὸ ποίημα τῷ ποιήσαντι οὐ συνετῶς με ἐποίησας (Isa 29.16)

Near-verbatim. Paul appears to have removed the middle part of the sentence.

καλέσω τὸν οὐ λαόν μου λαόν μου καὶ τὴν οὐκ ἠγαπημένην ἠγαπημένην (9.25)

Paraphrase. Paul is loosely summarizing Hosea 1.10-11.

καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῷ τόπῳ οὗ ἐρρέθη αὐτοῖς οὐ λαός μου ὑμεῖς ἐκεῖ κληθήσονται υἱοὶ θεοῦ ζῶντος (9.26)

καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῷ τόπῳ οὗ ἐρρέθη αὐτοῖς οὐ λαός μου ὑμεῖς ἐκεῖ κληθήσονται υἱοὶ θεοῦ ζῶντος (Hos 1.10 / LXX 2.1)

Verbatim.

ἐὰν ᾖ ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης τὸ ὑπόλειμμα σωθήσεται (9.27)

καὶν ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης ἣ οὐκ ἐκμετρηθήσεται (Hos 1.10 / LXX 2.1)

καὶ ἐὰν γένηται ὁ λαὸς Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης τὸ κατάλειμμα αὐτῶν σωθήσεται (Isa 10.22)

Near-verbatim. Paul appears to have combined two similar sentences in Hosea and Isaiah.

λόγον γὰρ συντελῶν καὶ συντέμνων ποιήσει κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς (9.28)

λόγον γὰρ συντελῶν καὶ συντέμνων ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ ὅτι λόγον συντετμημένον ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ (Isa 10.22)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes the middle part of the sentence, and changes ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ into κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.

εἰ μὴ κύριος σαβαὼθ ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμῖν σπέρμα ὡς Σόδομα ἂν ἐγενήθημεν καὶ ὡς Γόμορρα ἂν ὡμοιώθημεν (9.29)

εἰ μὴ κύριος σαβαωθ ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμῖν σπέρμα ὡς Σόδομα ἂν ἐγενήθημεν καὶ ὡς Γόμορρα ἂν ὡμοιώθημεν (Isa 1.9)

Verbatim.

ἰδοὺ τίθημι ἐν Σιὼν λίθον προσκόμματος καὶ πέτραν σκανδάλου καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται (9.33)

ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐμβαλῶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια Σιὼν λίθον πολυτελῆ ἐκλεκτὸν ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἔντιμον εἰς τὰ θεμέλια αὐτῆς καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ (Isa 28.16)

Near-verbatim. Despite a significant portion of the sentence not matching, Paul has nine identical words in the same order, one of them a six-word string, followed by the same verb in a different case. This overlap seems too high to be an accident of Paul and the LXX separately translating the Hebrew. Paul may be paraphrasing, attempting to quote from memory, or working from a different Greek version.

ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (10.5)

ἃ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Neh 9.29 / LXX Ezra 19.19)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes ἃ to ὁ.

μὴ εἴπῃς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου τίς ἀναβήσεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (10.6)

μὴ εἴπῃς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου (Deut 8.17)

τίς ἀναβήσεται ἡμῖν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν (Deut 30.12)

Near-verbatim. Paul appears to have combined two verses from Deut.

τίς καταβήσεται εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον (10.7)

οὐδὲ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης ἐστὶν λέγων τίς διαπεράσει ἡμῖν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ λήμψεται ἡμῖν αὐτήν καὶ ἀκουστὴν ἡμῖν ποιήσει αὐτήν καὶ ποιήσομεν (Deut 30.13)

Paraphrase. Paul’s citation of Deut 30.13 does not match the LXX, but neither does it correspond to any Hebrew version. Given his previous combination of two verses, he may be attempting to quote from Deut by memory, or he consciously changed it into something hyperbolic. I marked this as a ‘paraphrase’ because it follows directly after Paul’s deliberate use of LXX Deut 8.17 and 30.12; Paul is continuing his use of the LXX in this verse, even though he is not actually quoting from it directly.

ἐγγύς σου τὸ ῥῆμά ἐστιν ἐν τῷ στόματί σου καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου τοῦτ’ ἔστιν τὸ ῥῆμα τῆς πίστεως ὃ κηρύσσομεν (10.8)

ἔστιν σου ἐγγὺς τὸ ῥῆμα σφόδρα ἐν τῷ στόματί σου καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου καὶ ἐν ταῖς χερσίν σου αὐτὸ ποιεῖν (Deut 30.14)

Near-verbatim. The first five words are the same, but rearranged. The next nine-word string is identical. The last part does not match.

πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται (10.11)

ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ (Isa 28.16)

Near-verbatim. Paul adds πᾶς, and changes the case of the final verb.

πᾶς γὰρ ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα κυρίου σωθήσεται (10.13)

καὶ ἔσται πᾶς ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα κυρίου σωθήσεται (Joel 2.32 / LXX 3.5)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes καὶ ἔσται, and adds γὰρ for syntax.

ὡς ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων ἀγαθά (10.15)

ὡς ὥρα ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων ὡς πόδες εὐαγγελιζομένου ἀκοὴν εἰρήνης ὡς εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀγαθά (Isa 52.7)

Near-verbatim. Paul appears to be quoting from memory, or shortening the sentence, but he is clearly working from the LXX.

κύριε τίς ἐπίστευσεν τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν (10.16)

κύριε τίς ἐπίστευσεν τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν (Isa 53.1)

Verbatim.

εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος αὐτῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης τὰ ῥήματα αὐτῶν (10.18)

εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος αὐτῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης τὰ ῥήματα αὐτῶν (Psa 19.4 / LXX 18.5)

Verbatim.

γὼ παραζηλώσω ὑμᾶς ἐπ’ οὐκ ἔθνει ἐπ’ ἔθνει ἀσυνέτῳ παροργιῶ ὑμᾶς (10.19)

κἀγὼ παραζηλώσω αὐτοὺς ἐπ’ οὐκ ἔθνει ἐπ’ ἔθνει ἀσυνέτῳ παροργιῶ αὐτούς (Deut 32.21)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes the contraction κἀγὼ (καί ἐγώ) to ἐγὼ, and changes the pronouns.

εὑρέθην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ζητοῦσιν ἐμφανὴς ἐγενόμην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ἐπερωτῶσιν (10.20)

ἐμφανὴς ἐγενόμην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ζητοῦσιν εὑρέθην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ἐπερωτῶσιν (Isa 65.1)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses the positions of ἐμφανὴς ἐγενόμην and εὑρέθην.

ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου πρὸς λαὸν ἀπειθοῦντα καὶ ἀντιλέγοντα (10.21)

ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν πρὸς λαὸν ἀπειθοῦντα καὶ ἀντιλέγοντα (Isa 65.2)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses the positions of ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου and ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν.

κύριε τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος καὶ ζητοῦσιν τὴν ψυχήν μου (11.3)

καὶ εἶπεν ηλιου ζηλῶν ἐζήλωκα τῷ κυρίῳ παντοκράτορι ὅτι ἐγκατέλιπόν σε οἱ υἱοὶ ισραηλ τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν καὶ τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ καὶ ὑπολέλειμμαι ἐγὼ μονώτατος καὶ ζητοῦσι τὴν ψυχήν μου λαβεῖν αὐτήν (1 Kings 19.10)

Paraphrase. Paul changes κυρίῳ into the vocative κύριε, keeps an identical four-word string (τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν), changes καὶ ὑπολέλειμμαι ἐγὼ into κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην, and has a nearly identical five-word string (μονώτατος καὶ ζητοῦσι τὴν ψυχήν μου). Paul is working from the LXX, but has severely truncated the verse.

κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τ Βάαλ (11.4)

καὶ καταλείψεις ἐν ισραηλ ἑπτὰ χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν πάντα γόνατα ἃ οὐκ ὤκλασαν γόνυ τ Βάαλ καὶ πᾶν στόμα ὃ οὐ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ (1 Kings 19.18)

Paraphrase. Paul’s wording is very similar, but nothing is identical. Between this and the previous use of Kings, it appears Paul may be quoting this passage from the LXX from memory.

ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα κατανύξεως ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας (11.8)

ὅτι πεπότικεν ὑμᾶς κύριος πνεύματι κατανύξεως καὶ καμμύσει τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων αὐτῶν οἱ ὁρῶντες τὰ κρυπτά (Isa 29.10)

Paraphrase. Paul keeps very little the LXX here, and still makes two changes, turning κύριος into ὁ θεὸς, and πνεύματι into πνεῦμα.

γενηθήτω ἡ τράπεζα αὐτῶν εἰς παγίδα καὶ εἰς θήρανκαὶ εἰς σκάνδαλον καὶ εἰς ἀνταπόδομα αὐτοῖς (11.9)

γενηθήτω ἡ τράπεζα αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν εἰς παγίδα καὶ εἰς ἀνταπόδοσιν καὶ εἰς σκάνδαλον (Psa 69.22 / LXX 68.23)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes the middle of the quotation, and flips positions of σκάνδαλον and ἀνταπόδοσιν (the latter modified to ἀνταπόδομα).

σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ τὸν νῶτον αὐτῶν διὰ παντὸς σύγκαμψον (11.10)

σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ τὸν νῶτον αὐτῶν διὰ παντὸς σύγκαμψον (Psa 69.23 / LXX 68.24)

Verbatim.

ἥξει ἐκ Σιὼν ὁ ῥυόμενος ἀποστρέψει ἀσεβείας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβ (11.26)

ἥξει ἕνεκεν Σιὼν ὁ ῥυόμενος καὶ ἀποστρέψει ἀσεβείας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβ (Isa 59.20)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes one word and removes another.

καὶ αὕτη αὐτοῖς ἡ παρ’ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν (11.27)

καὶ αὕτη αὐτοῖς ἡ παρ’ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη (Isa 59.21)

ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι αὐτοῦ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν (Isa 27.9)

Verbatim. Paul has combined two verses from Isaiah, slightly modifying the second.

τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου τίς σύμβουλος αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο (11.34)

τίς ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου καὶ τίς αὐτοῦ σύμβουλος ἐγένετο (Isa 40.13)

Near-verbatim. Paul adds γὰρ for syntax, replaces καὶ with ἢ, and reverses αὐτοῦ and σύμβουλος.

ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ (11.35)

ἐπεὶ δὲ οὖν δίκαιος εἶ τί δώσεις αὐτῷ ἢ τί ἐκ χειρός σου λήμψεται (Job 35.7)

ἢ τίς ἀντιστήσεταί μοι καὶ ὑπομενεῖ εἰ πᾶσα ἡ ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν ἐμή ἐστιν (Job 41.11 / LXX 41.3)

No match. Paul appears to be thinking of either Job 35.7 or 41.11 (LXX 41.3), but his quotation does not match either verse, in either the LXX or the Hebrew.

ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω λέγει κύριος (12.19)

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐκδικήσεως ἀνταποδώσω (Deut 32.35)

Paraphrase.

ἐὰν πεινᾷ ὁ ἐχθρός σου ψώμιζε αὐτόν ἐὰν διψᾷ πότιζε αὐτόν τοῦτο γὰρ ποιῶν ἄνθρακας πυρὸς σωρεύσεις ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ (12.20)

ἐὰν πεινᾷ ὁ ἐχθρός σου τρέφε αὐτόν ἐὰν διψᾷ πότιζε αὐτόν τοῦτο γὰρ ποιῶν ἄνθρακας πυρὸς σωρεύσεις ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ (Prov 25.22)

Near-verbatim.

οὐ μοιχεύσεις οὐ φονεύσεις οὐ κλέψεις (13.9)

οὐ μοιχεύσεις οὐ φονεύσεις οὐ κλέψεις (Deut 5.17-19)

Verbatim. Paul’s order of this selection from the Ten Commandments only matches the order found in LXX Deut 5.

οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις (13.9)

οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις (Deut 5.21)

Verbatim.

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (13.9)

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (Lev 19.18)

Verbatim.

ζῶ ἐγώ λέγει κύριος (14.11)

ζῶ ἐγώ λέγει κύριος (Isa 29.18)

Verbatim.

ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσεται τῷ θεῷ (14.11)

ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ καὶ ἐξομολογήσεται πᾶσα γλῶσσα τῷ θεῷ (Isa 45.23)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses ἐξομολογήσεται and πᾶσα γλῶσσα.

οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσαν ἐπ’ ἐμέ (15.3)

οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσαν ἐπ’ ἐμέ (Psa 69.9 / LXX 68.10)

Verbatim.

διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσιν καὶ τῷ ὀνόματί σου ψαλῶ (15.9)

διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσιν κύριε καὶ τῷ ὀνόματί σου ψαλῶ (Psa 18.49)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes the vocative κύριε.

εὐφράνθητε ἔθνη μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ (15.10)

εὐφράνθητε ἔθνη μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ (Deut 32.43)

Verbatim.

αἰνεῖτε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τὸν κύριον καὶ ἐπαινεσάτωσαν αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί (15.11)

αλληλουια αἰνεῖτε τὸν κύριον πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπαινέσατε αὐτόν πάντες οἱ λαοί (Psa 117.1 / LXX 116.1)

Near-verbatim. Paul makes some changes, but the text is overall the same.

ἔσται ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν (15.12)

καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν (Isa 11.10)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes καὶ and ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ.

οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ ὄψονται καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν συνήσουσιν (15.21)

οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ ὄψονται καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν συνήσουσιν (Isa 52.15)

Verbatim.

1 Corinthians

ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν ἀθετήσω (1.19)

ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν κρύψω (Isa 29.14)

Near-verbatim.

ὁ καυχώμενος ἐν κυρί καυχάσθω (1.31)

ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐν τούτῳ καυχάσθω ὁ καυχώμενος συνίειν καὶ γινώσκειν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος (Jer 9.24)

Paraphrase. Paul has enough that is clearly working from the LXX, but what he keeps is rearranged and modified.

ἃ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη ἃ ἡτοίμασεν ὁ θεὸς τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν (2.9)

συναντήσεται γὰρ τοῖς ποιοῦσιν τὸ δίκαιον καὶ τῶν ὁδῶν σου μνησθήσονται ἰδοὺ σὺ ὠργίσθης καὶ ἡμεῖς ἡμάρτομεν διὰ τοῦτο ἐπλανήθημεν (Isa 64.4)

No match. The wording here is a quotation from Isaiah 64.4, but it fits the Hebrew, not the LXX, which makes it anamolous. William Walker (‘1 Corinthians 2.6-16: A Non-Pauline Interpolation?’, JSNT 47, 75-94) believes the whole paragraph this verse comes from may be an interpolation. If this is the case, it would explain why Paul does not use the LXX here.

τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου ὃς συμβιβάσει αὐτόν (2.16)

τίς ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου καὶ τίς αὐτοῦ σύμβουλος ἐγένετο ὃς συμβιβᾷ αὐτόν (Isa 40.13)

Near-verbatim. Paul adds γὰρ for syntax, and removes the middle part.

δρασσόμενος τοὺς σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτῶν (3.19)

καταλαμβάνων σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ φρονήσει βουλὴν δὲ πολυπλόκων ἐξέστησεν (Job 5.13)

Paraphrase. Paul has just enough verbal overlap here, a three-word string, that I consider this a conscious use of the LXX, but not enough I would call it a ‘quotation’. Paul’s use of the Book of Job has not been favorable to the LXX version. This may indicate that he had a different version than the Old Greek commonly included in the Septuagint, or that he was trying to quote the OG from memory, or that he was translating from a Hebrew text.

κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι (3.20)

κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι (Psa 94.11 / LXX 93.11)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes ἀνθρώπων to σοφῶν.

ἔσονται γάρ οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (6.16)

ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (Gen 2.24)

Verbatim. Paul adds γάρ for syntax.

οὐ κημώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα (9.9)

οὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα (Deut 25.4)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes φιμώσεις to κημώσεις.

ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν (10.7)

ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν (Exo 32.6)

Near-verbatim. Paul changes πιεῖν to πεῖν.

τοῦ κυρίου γὰρ ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς (10.26)

τοῦ κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς (Psa 24.1 / LXX 23.1)

Verbatim. Paul adds γὰρ for syntax.

ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν χείλεσιν ἑτέρων λαλήσω τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ καὶ οὐδ’ οὕτωςεἰσακούσονταί μου (14.21)

διὰ φαυλισμὸν χειλέων διὰ γλώσσης ἑτέρας ὅτι λαλήσουσιν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ (Isa 28.11)

Paraphrase. Paul keeps a three-word string, but changes and rearranges three other words.

θῇ πάντας τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ (15.25)

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου (Psa 110.1 / LXX 109.1)

Paraphrase. Paul keeps τοὺς ἐχθροὺς, and σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου becomes ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ.

πάντα ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ (15.27)

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου (Psa 110.1 / LXX 109.1)

Paraphrase. Same circumstance as above: ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου is truncated as ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ

φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν (15.32)

φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν (Isa 22.13)

Verbatim.

ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν (15.45)

ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν (Gen 2.7)

Near-verbatim. Paul adds πρῶτος and Ἀδὰμ to draw an explicit contrast with Jesus as ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ, ‘the last Adam’.

κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος (15.54)

κατέπιεν ὁ θάνατος ἰσχύσας (Isa 25.8)

Near-verbatim. Paul matchs the LXX, except replacing ἰσχύσας with εἰς νῖκος.

ποῦ σου θάνατε τὸνῖκος ποῦ σου θάνατε τὸ κέντρον (15.55)

ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου θάνατε ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου ᾅδη (Hos 13.14)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses positions of ἡ δίκη and σου θάνατε, then changes ἡ δίκη to τὸνῖκος, reverses positions of τὸ κέντρον and σου ᾅδη, then changes ᾅδη to θάνατε. Despite these changes, Paul is clearly working from an existing Greek version, probably the LXX, which he may be attempting to quote from memory.

2 Corinthians

ἐπίστευσα διὸ ἐλάλησα (4.13)

ἐπίστευσα διὸ ἐλάλησα (Psa 116.10 / LXX 115.1)

Verbatim.

καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι (6.2)

καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι (Isa 49.8)

Verbatim.

ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς (6.16)

κατασκηνώσω ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν (Ezek 43.9)

Conceptual match. Paul does not appear to be quoting any specific text here, just an idea found in different parts of the Hebrew Bible. Ezek 43.9 appears to the closest wording.

καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτῶν θεὸς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μου λαός (6.16)

καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω ἐν ὑμῖν καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῶν θεός καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μου λαός (Lev 26.12)

καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν (Jer 31.33 / LXX 38.33)

Paraphrase. Paul has combined parts of two verses that are about the same idea found in the previous ‘quotation’. I consider this a paraphrase because the ‘quotation’ is from two separate verses, but Paul borrows four two-word strings identically from the first verse, and a four-word string identically from the second verse.

διὸ ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν καὶ ἀφορίσθητε λέγει κύριος καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε κἀγὼ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς (6.17)

ἀπόστητε ἀπόστητε ἐξέλθατε ἐκεῖθεν καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῆς ἀφορίσθητε οἱ φέροντες τὰ σκεύη κυρίου (Isa 52.11)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes and adds several words, but does borrow a four-word string almost identically, and another four-word string identically.

καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῖν εἰς πατέρα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱοὺς καὶ θυγατέρας λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ (6.18)

ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν (2 Sam 7.14)

Paraphrase. Paul is definitely borrowing from LXX 2 Sam 7.14, but he has subtantially altered the sentence.

ὁ τὸ πολὺ οὐκ ἐπλεόνασεν καὶ ὁ τὸ ὀλίγον οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν (8.15)

οὐκ ἐπλεόνασεν ὁ τὸ πολύ καὶ ὁ τὸ ἔλαττον οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν (Exo 16.18)

Near-verbatim.

ἐσκόρπισεν ἔδωκεν τοῖς πένησιν ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα (9.9)

ἐσκόρπισεν ἔδωκεν τοῖς πένησιν ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα (Psa 112.9 / LXX 111.9)

Verbatim.

τῷ σπείροντι καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν (9.10)

τῷ σπείροντι καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν (Isa 55.10)

Verbatim.

δὲ καυχώμενος ἐν κυρί καυχάσθω (10.17)

ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐν τούτῳ καυχάσθω ὁ καυχώμενος συνίειν καὶ γινώσκειν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος (Jer 9.24)

Near-verbatim. Same case as 1 Cor 1.31 above.

ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα (13.1)

ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ ἐπὶ στόματος τριῶν μαρτύρων σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα (Deut 19.15)

Near-verbatim. Paul removes ἐπὶ στόματος and the second μαρτύρων.

Galatians

καθὼς Ἀβραὰμ ἐπίστευσεν τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην (3.6)

καὶ ἐπίστευσεν Ἀβρὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην (Gen 15.6)

Near-verbatim. Paul reverses positions of ἐπίστευσεν and Ἀβρὰμ, then changes Ἀβρὰμ to the more recognizable Ἀβραὰμ.

ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν σοὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη (3.8)

ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν σοὶ πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς (Gen 12.3)

ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν αὐτῷ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς γῆς (Gen 18.18)

Near-verbatim. Paul combines two very similar verses that are about the same topic.

ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτ (3.10)

ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ὃς οὐκ ἐμμενεῖ ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς λόγοις τοῦ νόμου τούτου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτούς (Deut 27.26)

Near-verbatim. Paul makes some changes throughout.

ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (3.11)

δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεώς μου ζήσεται (Hab 2.4)

Near-verbatim.

ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (3.12)

ποιήσας ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Lev 18.5)

ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς (Neh 9.29)

Near-verbatim. Paul’s version either replaces ἄνθρωπος with αὐτὰ in LXX Lev 18.5, or simply removes ἄνθρωπος from Neh 9.29. Since Paul also uses Neh 9.29 in Rom 10.5, that is probably what he is quoting here as well.

ἐπικατρατος πᾶς κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου (3.13)

ὅτι κεκατηραμένος ὑπὸ θεοῦ πᾶς κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου (Deut 21.23)

Near-verbatim. I consider this a quotation, not a paraphrase, because there is an identical three-word string. The vague consonance of ὅτι κεκατηραμένος and ἐπικατάρατος may suggest Paul was attempting to quote LXX Deut 21.23 from memory.

καὶ τῷ σπέρματί σου (3.16)

καὶ τῷ σπέρματί σου (Gen 13.15, etc.)

Verbatim.

εὐφράνθητι στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα (4.27)

εὐφράνθητι στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα (Isa 54.1)

Verbatim.

ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς οὐ γὰρ μὴ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας (4.30)

ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην ταύτην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς οὐ γὰρ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης ταύτης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ μου Ἰσαὰκ (Gen 21.10)

Near-verbatim.

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (5.14)

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (Lev 19.18)

Verbatim.

Philippians

ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦπᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχθονίων καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσηται ὅτικύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸςεἰς δόξαν θεοῦ πατρός (2.10-11)

κατ’ ἐμαυτοῦ ὀμνύω ἦ μὴν ἐξελεύσεται ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου δικαιοσύνη οἱ λόγοι μου οὐκ ἀποστραφήσονται ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ καὶ ἐξομολογήσεται πᾶσα γλῶσσα τῷ θε (Isa 45.23)

Paraphrase. Paul keeps only five words. He preserves a two-word string (πᾶσα γλῶσσα) and its verb (ἐξομολογήσηται), but reverses their positions. Because Paul so substantially reinterprets the text, he may have only been intending to echo it, not quote it. Further adding to the difficulty here, Paul may not even be the one responsible for this use of Isaiah. Philippians 2.5-11 is often suggested to be a pre-Pauline creed or hymn that Paul has incorporated into his letter. The rather loose echo of Isaiah could well come from someone else.